Thursday, December 4, 2014

Book Review: Military Chaplaincy in Contention: Chaplains, Churches and the Morality of Conflict

This review was written earlier this year and appears in the Advent/Christmas edition of the Newsletter of the Anglican Military Ordinariate, Royal Canadian Chaplain Service.  MP+

Military Chaplaincy in Contention: Chaplains, Churches and the Morality of Conflict. Andrew Todd, editor. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2013.

 In this compilation of essays, British military chaplains and theologians reflect on the United Kingdom’s decade long engagement in Iraq and Afghanistan. Canadian readers of this book will immediately notice differences between our two chaplaincies. The military chaplains who contributed essays were or are members of the Royal Army Chaplains Department (RAChD), so there is no experience of tri-service chaplaincy here. As members of a Christian organization, they lack the nuances and multifaith awareness that CAF chaplains have been gaining since 2003. Their ecclesiastical relationships are not as strong as ours are, and they are aware that their churches share British society’s uncertainties about these wars. Nevertheless, their struggles with the moral ambiguities of asymmetric conflict, with the demands of military missions and theology, and with the changing role of religion in the military and society, will be struggles that any CAF chaplain can identify with.

The book’s title, Military Chaplaincy in Contention, was deliberately chosen by the editor, Andrew Todd, Director of the Chaplaincy Studies program at Cardiff. As Todd notes, the ministry of chaplains is “in contention” not only because the Iraq and Afghanistan missions were/are contentious, without a consensus of support within UK society, but also because the chaplain’s role, often doing “instantaneous theology” within the complex demands of military operations and under the media gaze, raises the public question, “to what extent is a largely Christian, religious presence appropriate in this public context”? The essays that follow take their tone accordingly. They are provocative, challenging, and provide ample food for thought.

Andrew Totten, currently the Assistant Chaplain General, RAChD, and a veteran of many deployments including Afghanistan, carefully explores the differences between two words that every chaplain must negotiate, “moral” and “morale”. While “morale” speaks to the chaplain’s pastoral role of caring for and encouraging soldiers, Totten notes that chaplains must also engage with “moral” issues of right and wrong. This engagement can be difficult when British Christian churches are conflicted about war and give their chaplains little support or framework to reflect on the morality of warfare. If chaplains avoid issues of morality and default to merely being“morale sustainers of soldiers”, Totten argues, then they have failed their primary role, which is to help soldiers distinguish between right and wrong. As Totten notes, military duty in Helmand Province comes with an ethical component. He writes that he has often observed British soldiers enduring great discomfort and risk while “encouraging local nationals to support the people and processes of civil society”, and so chaplains must share and engage with “soldiers’ needs and experiences”.

Likewise, Philip McCormack, Chief Instructor at the UK Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre, argues that chaplains and their churches cannot sit quietly on a comfortable and removed moral high ground, but must “become active participants in a dialogue on how to create a moral/ethical resource or framework for those who find themselves in the most morally challenging situations of our time”. Other contributors in this section address moral aspects of interrogation of suspected terrorists and the implications of the increasing use of robotics in warfare.

Peter Howson, a retired RAChD padre and Methodist pastor, examines the sometimes strained relations between chaplains and the British churches, which often think and act like “functional pacifists”. This chapter made me especially grateful for the role of our own Interfaith Committee on Canadian Military Chaplaincy in the life of our Branch, and led me to conclude that our chaplaincy is markedly ahead of the British in terms of our relations with Canadian faith groups. Jonathan Ball, a retired RAChD padre and Anglican priest, offers a strong essay on the role of liturgy in deployed contexts. Ball examines the experience of padres with British Army deployments in 2010, when an astonishing 78 soldier deaths in one brigade proved that vigils and memorial services show that liturgy, carefully planned, still has the power to console and comfort, even in the British context where society, especially male society, is increasingly estranged from religion. Two final essays both address the Christian just war tradition as a resource for chaplains, and examine the connection between military mission and morality.

The essays in Military Chaplaincy in Contention highlight some of the differences between our Branch and our British colleagues. However, the contributors to this thoughtful book all recognize a universal role of our vocation, namely that effective chaplaincy must be located “within the military community: providing space for military personnel to air their doubts, or raise questions about the rules that govern military life; acting as a critical friend to the commanding officer; questioning, when necessary, the way in which military strategy is carried out”. In those respects our role is the same, regardless of the uniform or faith identifiers we may happen to wear.

Reviewed By Padre Michael Peterson

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Canadian Armed Forces Chaplain Branch Is Now the Royal Canadian Chaplain Service


I am remiss in blogging this piece of news from October, and am still getting used to the fact that the organization I work for now has a new name. This announcement follows in the path of previous moves to rebrand components of the CAF with their historic names and royal designations.

From the point of view of the MA thesis I am currently writing, on the Branch’s …. errr, Service’s (this will take some getting used to) move to pluralism in the last decade, it is interesting that this press release stresses both the traditional identity of the Chaplaincy and it’s new religious diversity as “an interfaith team that includes representation from … over twenty Christian denominations and from the Jewish and Muslim faiths”.   That’s a pleasant contrast, new wine in old bottles.


Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Video Games Revisited: When "Kill 'Em All" Is Not A Valid Strategy

I’ve written here and elsewhere about the role of the video game, specifically the First Person Shooter (FPS) in military culture.   As a guest writer on journalist and historian Tom Ricks’ Best Defence Column, Jim Gourlay suggests that the blockbuster status of FPS releases like Call Of Duty, and their “Kill Em All” approach to problem solving, foster a worldview that is “wholly unrealistic” and he suggests that “their broadening influence on American military culture and defines thinking may be toxic.”    Here’s an excerpt of Gourley’s piece in which he contrasts the FPS approach with that of “empathy games” which come closer to describing tactical and strategic situations that First World militaries increasingly find themselves in.

"An entire generation of adults grew up playing games as soldiers shooting the enemy, and they're still playing today alongside their own children. The games have grown, as well. The gaming industry's revenues are now on par with Hollywood, and shooters have become the game equivalent of big-budget blockbusters. It's in this Michael Bay approach to production that an entire dimension of realism is abandoned: the reality of cultural influences on operational outcomes, the inexorable link between military actions and political consequences, and the acceptance of risk to your own forces in order to win the support of local populations. Call it COIN or "hearts and minds," it boils down to the same thing -- empathy. 

But whether it's fundamentalist terrorists, aliens bent on planetary conquest, or the zombie horde, the essential mechanic that makes FPS games so addictively fun is their "kill 'em all" approach to every situation. Whereas top American military leaders have explicitly told us that we can't kill our way out of Afghanistan, FPS games are built on the belief that you can. Outside observers of American culture believe the games are winning the messaging war, making us more likely to enter conflict and less equipped to find a successful way out.”  

Read the whole piece here and watch for later instalments in Gourley’s argument.

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

A Chaplain Honour Roll

Kudos to Mad Padre’s Man In Norwich for telling me about this website dedicated to UK war memorials.   Very much a work in progress at the moment, but the author has an interest in British and Imperial/Commonwealth military chaplains and has an impressive amount of data assembled on padres who laid down their lives for their fellows.  To my shame, I was not aware that so many Canadian chaplains died on active service in World War Two, far more than I knew of.  My chaplain colleagues may find this site interesting.


Sunday, November 9, 2014

A Sermon For Remembrance Day

Preached at St. Coliumba’s Anglican Church, Remembrance Day Sunday, November, 2014

Three weekends ago I happened to be in Ottawa, near Parliament Hill.  I’d been told that there was an honour guard of Canadian Armed Forces members at the National War Memorial and I wanted to have a look at them.   I was not disappointed.   Two young soldiers, immaculately turned out in their dress uniforms, stood at attention at the base of the tall stone pillar, beneath the larger than life bronze statues of soldiers from their great-grandfather’s war.  A young private, a Reservist from the Nova Scotia Highlanders, stood a short distance away, ready to speak to the public.   I asked him some polite questions about the purpose of the ceremonial guard.  In clipped, professional tones, he told me it was part of the 100th anniversary of the start of World War One, and that the guards were drawn in turns from the Army, Navy, and Air Force.    As we talked, another soldier played a lament on the bagpipes.  Tourists grinned happily while they took each other’s pictures with the soldiers in the background.   I complimented the Private from Nova Scotia on a job well done, and left.  As I walked away, I wondered if that young Private was old enough to shave.

Four days later we learned that one of those young honour guards lay crumpled and dying at the base of that monument.   He was Corporal Nathan Cirillo, a handsome young man with a winning smile, a dog and a little son.  He died two days after another soldier, Warrant Officer Patrice Vincent, was mowed down by a car.  Both were singled out and killed because they were wearing the uniform of their country.   In both cases, the attackers were mentally unstable loners who used jihadist language but appeared to have the sketchiest understandings of Islam.   For several days, the country held its breath until we realized that this was not an organized plot, and that we had no reason to fear our Muslim neighbours and fellow citizens.   In Alberta, in the Air Force town of Cold Lake, when someone sprayed hate graffiti on the walls of a mosque, members of the community pitched in and helped clean it up.   Some of those who helped wore military uniforms.   Canadian values of acceptance and pluralism (I won’t say tolerance because that is a stingy, miserly word) held firm.   My boss, the Chaplain General of the Canadian Forces, joined with Muslim and Jewish leaders at the Anglican cathedral in Ottawa for an interfaith service called Prayers for Ottawa.  In the ways that matter, Canada came out of this week more itself than ever.

In one respect, however, Canada has changed.   I think it will be a long time before any of us wear a poppy casually.   Perhaps there was a time when we wore the poppy out of habit.  Perhaps we saw a young Cadet with a poppy box outside Zehrs and thought, “Oh yes, it’s that time again.”  I think this year we will take the poppy more seriously.  The poppy reminds us that all those names carved in stone, all those names from our grandparents wars, belonged to real people.  As John McRae wrote of the dead nearly a century ago, “We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, loved, and were loved”.  If you have, like me, been following the weekly column in the Record on Kitchener-Waterloo residents who died in the First World War, you will know what I mean.  All of these young men (and some women) in those stories left real families and real jobs, and real houses, some of which still stand today.  They never came home.  Patrice Roy and Nathan Cirillo, or the 157 young men and women lost in Afghanistan, are no different from the dead of Korea, of Dieppe, or of Passchendaele.  They were all real people. Cartoonist Bruce McKinnon put it well the day after the Ottawa shooting, when he drew the image of bronze statues climbing off the War Memorial to raise the body of Cpl. Cirillo into their ranks.

As a soldier and as a chaplain, I’ve wrestled with quite a few emotions since these events.  As a soldier, I’m proud of people like Roy and Cirillo.  The four values of the Canadian Forces are Courage, Loyalty, Duty, and Integrity, and these two men seem to have lived these values right up to the end.   However, as a chaplain, I struggle with our instinct to reach too high on occasions like this.    At Nathan Cirillo’s funeral, someone said that he died at the most sacred spot in Canada, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.  It is certainly sacred in that it is a consecrated site, an actual burial place.   However, beyond that, I think we need to be careful about how we apply the word sacred to the War Memorial and what it stands for.   I think we need to take care that we dont say that these deaths were pleasing to God, and I don’t think, frankly, that as Christians we can say that.   The young men who left jobs as clerks and farmers in Waterloo region to go to Flanders in 1914 were told that they were fighting for God, King and Country.   The young Germans they fought were told the same thing, and they wore belt buckles on their uniforms on which were stamped the words “Gott Mitt Uns” (God With Us).   In some cases, those young Waterloo men and their foes in the other trenches spoke the same language and may even have been related, because, as you know, Waterloo wasn’t called Waterloo in those days.  It was called Berlin.  I don’t see how God could have taken sides in that war.  I just can’t see it.

I have a friend, a bright young officer, who asked me once why chaplains don’t pray for a good smiting.  I asked him what he meant.  He told me, “When I was in Afghanistan, before we went out on a mission, I wanted the Padre to pray for God to help us smite our enemies.   No one did.  I like Padres, but why can’t you guys pray for a good smiting?”  Probably, I told him, because we can’t.  If we did, then would we be any better than those who recruit suicide bombers and promise them a speedy trip to paradise if they kill in Allah’s name?   I think that’s why my trade is the only one in the military that don’t carry weapons.   Doctors and medics carry weapons to protect their patients.   Clerks and cooks carry rifles because they may just get called on to fight.  Chaplains don’t carry weapons of any sort.  We’re not allowed to, and we wouldn’t want to if we could.  There’s a story about a group of soldiers out marching somewhere, and their chaplain was with them.  “Padre,” one said, “Why don’t you carry a rifle?  That’s not normal.”   Before the chaplain could answer, another one said, “No, you don’t get it.  Carrying a rifle everywhere is not normal.  The padre’s the only one who’s normal.  He’s here to remind us what normal is.”

Most chaplains I know love this story because it speaks to who we are and why we’re there.  Some say that we as clergy condone war and violence just because we wear the uniform.   We don’t think we do.  We think we are there to show God’s love to the men and women who have accepted their role, as hard as it may be for them.  No soldier in their right mind wants to go fight and kill, but that is what they are trained to do, and that is what they are called to do by the country they serve.    Soldiers, because of their profession, have to go to dark places that seem far from God, and that is why chaplains go with them, to remind them that God has not abandoned them.   Many soldiers are touched and damaged by the brokenness they must face.   Many struggle with addictions of various sorts.  Their relationships are strained by long absences and many military marriages fail.   Not all soldiers do the right thing.  Some become coarse and brutal.   Calling all soldiers “Heroes”, as society likes to do, does them no favours.  They don’t call themselves heroes.  They are ordinary people, and like you and me, they are sinners.   That’s why we chaplains chose this ministry, because it’s full of broken people who need the assurance of God’s love.

Very few Canadians have any real connection with the military.  Unless you live in a military town, chances are you don’t see people in uniform.  It’s not the career of choice for bright young people who want money and comfort.   However,  as Anglicans, you have a connection with the military.  The Anglican Church has over forty of its clergy in uniform, either part time or, like me, full time.   Anglican chaplains are leant to the military by the Church.  The Diocese of Huron supported me financially as a theological student, and then after I did four years of ordained service, Bishop Bruce Howe let me go to the military.  In effect, he was writing off your investment in me.  He didn’t have to, and not all bishops do, but he agreed that the military was a valid calling for me.   General Synod gives us chaplains a Bishop Ordinary, who is currently Bishop Peter Coffin, a retired Bishop of Ottawa, and helps us pay him a small stipend, too small for all the work he does for us.  When +Peter retires in a few years, General Synod has given us permission to elect our own Bishop Ordinary going forward.   Many chaplains go back to the civilian church when they retire from the military.  So in many real ways, you as the Church are connected to the Canadian Forces through the men and women you send to it as chaplains.

There was a time, long ago, when the Anglican Church just assumed that Canada should be a Christian country.   The Church tolerated Roman Catholics and even Methodists, but really felt that all Canadians should be Anglicans.  One of the reasons the Church sent clergy to the military was that we wanted to make soldiers more Christian, and preferably Anglican.   Today my colleagues and I work with people of many faiths and, often, of no faith.   If there’s an Anglican, or a Christian, who wants our services, we’re there for them.   We’ll happily celebrate the Eucharist using the hood of a truck for an altar.   But, if we meet a Jewish soldier who wants to celebrate Passover, or a Muslim whose sergeant won’t let him grow a beard, or a pagan who wants time off to celebrate the solstice, a chaplain will go to bat for those folks until they get what they need.   As we like to say, we minister to our own, we help others get their faith needs met, and we serve everyone.   We like talking to the “spiritual but not religious”, or to grizzled atheists and agnostics who say they would burst into flame if they ever set foot inside a church (so far, I’ve never seen this happen).  We always  try to show these men and women that God is with them, and sometimes we use words to tell them that.   You as the Church can be proud of the work that your Anglican chaplains have done, and continue to do today, such as the work of Canon Rob Fead of the Diocese of Niagara, who served the Cirillo family in their time of grief.

Because you are the Church, and because you are connected to the military through your chaplains, and because you are Canadians, I think you have some responsibilities.   You are called to think about God’s will and plan for humanity.  Is war part of that plan?   Can war and violence be justified?   What does the cross say to us about the use of violence?   What does the Resurrection say to us about death and life?    What is the church called to say in times of war and violence?   Do we speak in the name of a triumphant God who takes sides in human conflict, or do we follow a God who weeps for a broken world and calls it to peace and new life?  These are issues that you the Church are called to wrestle with, and not just on Remembrance Day.  Let me close by offering some suggestions to help you with these responsibilities.   Pay attention to the news about places like the Middle East.  Try to resist easy judgements and answers, and try to dig into the stories.  Listen to different voices, such as the News Service on the Anglican Communion website, or even Al Jazeera.  Support the troops but find out what they’re doing.  Why are we sending troops and planes to the Middle East?   What are Canada’s goas there? Are you hearing enough about these things from your elected leaders?   While we’re talking about elected leaders, ask them what is being done for military families, for veterans young and old, especially those struggling with mental and physical injuries.  Are you satisfied that enough is being done?   Finally, as people of God, pray.  Pray for peace, and pray for those who are called to bear arms in the absence of peace, and pray for my colleagues, chaplains of all faiths, who minister to our soldiers and their families.

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Military Goats In The News

As longtime readers of this blog know well, nothing excites our admiration more than that most noble, martial, and proud of animals, than the military goat.   It is this blog’s stated policy and fondest wish that more armies adopt this fine creatures as mascots.  This picture and caption from today’s UK Ministry of Defence daily email:

Almost 100 soldiers from 1st Battalion The Mercian Regiment paraded in Gheluvelt Park, Worcester, to mark the centenary of the 2nd Battalion The Worcestershire Regiment’s victory against the Germans at the battle of Gheluvelt. On the morning of 31 October 1914 near the small town of Gheluvelt in Belgium, the Germans broke through the Allied defensive line. With an easy route to the Channel ports and 13 German Battalions on the charge, The Worcestershire Regiment’s 2nd Battalion were called to counter attack. Elsewhere across the Allied line, orders were issued to prepare for a general retreat. Already down to half of their capacity due to 10 days of hard battle, against overwhelming odds the 2nd Worcestershire showed immense courage, pushing the Germans back and plugging the gap in the Allied defensive line, saving the Channel ports in the process. In the picture, the Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire is introduced to the regimental mascot, Private Derby XXX. [Picture: Sergeant Mike O'Neill, Crown copyright]

Wednesday, October 29, 2014

Military Picture of the Week: Odd Man Out

One of those three Grenadier Guardsmen is actually a cake, which may be the strangest thing I’ve ever written on this blog.



The cake is to celebrate the start of the British Legion’s annual Poppy Campaign.  More info here.




Thursday, October 23, 2014

Canada Gets Back Up

This image from today’s Halifax Chronicle Herald captures how I and many Canadians are feeling today.   In the four days since I posted a picture of my visit to the Ottawa War Memorial, there have been two attacks on Canadian Armed Forces personnel.   On Monday a Regular Force RCAF Warrant Officer was killed in a Montreal parking lot by a by would be jihadist who mowed him down with his car, and yesterday an Army Reservist was shot and mortally wounded while part of the ceremonial guard mount at one of our country’s most honoured (and, in a secular sense of the word) sacred places.   The gunman then went on to Parliament Hill, and in a video that I still find surreal, died in a gun battle, shot by our Parliament’s Sergeant of Arms, an ex-RCMP officer, who is today an undisputed national hero.  

What to make of this?   It’s too early to say, but members of the Canadian Armed Forces, still enjoying the public approval from their role in Afghanistan, will be struggling (as I am) with the perceived loss of pride and identity in being told not to wear their uniforms in public.   Hopefully that order will be lifted by Remembrance Day, and we can pay our respects to the old and newly fallen as we should, but we now have to think about security issues in our own country.  In that sense, while there is some in his piece yesterday that I disagree with, journalist Glenn Greenwald does make a good point.  Canada has been at war for thirteen years, ever since our troops first went to Tora Bora in Afghanistan, and while we’ve refurbished our military prestige and pride following the dark years and moral failures of the 1990s, we have been complacent.  We never thought that our enemies would strike us here.  We assumed that either we were too small to be an important target to Bin Laden and his followers, or that if homegrown extremists tried, then our security services would catch them, because they all seemed pretty inept.   Now, in three days, we can’t afford those misguided assumptions.  

I hope we don’t slide into a security state mentality like our southern neighbours have.   Their post 9/11 habit of replacing that lovely and historic word of liberty, “America”, with “Homeland”, which to my mind hearkens back to 19th century European “blood and volk" nationalism, is unfortunate, but that’s just my opinion.   I hope that Parliament will reopen to visitors soon, although I suspect that visitors will have to go through metal detectors and other security measures.  It’s still our Parliament, and should remain so.   The National War Memorial will take on a new significance, to be sure, and there will be new resolve to fight against ISIS and forces like it, even if it’s still unclear whether these attacks of the last tree days were jihadist ordered, jihadist inspired, or just copycat violence by mentally fragile and angry loners.  As a former Commanding Officer of mine said yesterday, if we were complacent and ambiguous about the Syria deployment last week, now Canadians will be resolved, and military history shows that when we are angry, we punch above our weight.   

The most encouraging thing for me yesterday was hearing that the Ottawa Police, with parts of the capital still in lockdown, sent this message out to the city’s Muslim community.  If you feel unsafe, or threatened, let us know and we’ll protect you.   If that virtue of Canadian solidarity and tolerance makes it through the days to come unscathed, then we’ll be alright.

God bless and protect all those who serve and protect our country, whatever uniform they wear.





Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Military Picture Of The Week

I took these two pictures at the National War Memorial on a chilly noon in Ottawa this last Sunday.   As part of the anniversary of the start of the First World War, the three branches of the Canadian Armed Forces are mounting a guard there during (I believe) daylight hours.   When I visited it was the Army’s turn.   These young soldiers were standing guard at the front of the memorial, facing down Elgin Street, and on the far side, facing Parliament Hill, a piper was playing.   The turnout of these lads was immaculate and their bearing was every inch the soldier.   If you find yourself in Ottawa in November it’s worth a visit.




Friday, October 17, 2014

How Do You Like Them Apples?


Kay and I just returned from the Berkeley Springs region of West Virginia, where we spent a week with her siblings. Since we were the advance party, we got to sample some local culture, including the kickoff parade of the local Apple Butter Festival.   Who knew there were so many apples?  Extra marks for identifying the types of apples represented here.

I have some more photos to post when I get back from a conference happening this weekend.


Mad Padre

Mad Padre
Opinions expressed within are in no way the responsibility of anyone's employers or facilitating agencies and should by rights be taken as nothing more than one person's notional musings, attempted witticisms, and prayerful posturings.


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