Hello! I am trying to get this blog back into service as part of my ongoing professional military development. This is a book review that I submitted to the Canadian Military Journal this week. The authors' left-wing perspective will be quite foreign to most members of the Canadian Armed Forces, but hearing a different voice is often a valuable experience. MP
The Vimy Trap: Or, How We Learned To Stop Worrying and Love the Great WarBy Ian McKay and Jamie Swift. Toronto: Between the Lines, 2016. 372 pages, $22.93.
The Vimy Trap is an extended critique of the place of the 1917 battle of Vmy Ridge in Canadian identity. McKay, an academic, and Swift, a journalist, have spent their careers examining Canadian history and institutions from a left-wing perspective. As their book’s title snarky title suggests, they reject the idea that Vimy was a foundational moment when a true Canadian identity and nation were born. This provocative book is intended for a general audience, and is clearly intended to challenge a history that we have gotten very comfortable with.
McKay and Swift are at their best when describing the process by which Vimy Ridge became an iconic battle for Canada. While tactically successful, Vimy Ridge did not have a strategic result. In fact, Vimy was the sole bright spot in the failed Anglo-French Arras offensive of April 1917. Other Canadian actions, such as the Hundred Days in 1918, had far more effect on the outcome of the war. However, Vimy was the first time that the Canadian Corps had fought together, (albeit with significant British support), a point of pride to Canadians who took part in the fighting.
Immediately after the war there was disagreement as to whether Vimy should be selected over other Canadian battlefields (Hill 62 in the Ypres Salient was a candidate) to be the site of a national memorial. By 1922 Vimy had been selected, in part because the scenic view, and the contract for the design of a monument was awarded to Walter Allward, The driving force for the Vimy memorial came from William Mackenzie King, who first became Prime Minister in 1921. As McKay and Swift note, King was a pacifist, and saw the Vimy monument as a way to condemn the “futility of war” while acknowledging the coming together of all Canadians in a great common cause. Allward, the designer, wanted the Vimy monument to be a “sermon against the futility of war”.
McKay and Swift’s main thesis is that this ideal of a monument to peace was hijacked by a militaristic, nationalistic view of Canadian history that ignored the horrors of World War One. The authors describe this view as “Vimyism”, meaning a glorification and simplification of war, a desire to see Canada as always being on the side of right, and to see the battle of Vimy Ridge as the birth of a nation that was in fact far from unified. This idea of “Vimyism”, which becomes a long screed against militarism, is where McKay and Swift overplay their hand while pointing at some important truths.
McKay and Swift are right to remind us that Canada had no common or romanticised understanding of war in the decades after 1918. There was a sizeable peace movement, fueled by trade unions, unemployment, social issues, pacifist clergy, and antiwar soldier writers such as Charles Yale Harrison, whose novel Generals Die In Bed (1928) is often hailed as the Canadian version of Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front. However, in the late 1930s Canadian pacifism largely gave way to a grudging belief that a war against Nazi Germany was necessary. “Vimyism”, claim the authors, developed in the last fifty years as a whitewashed version of Canada’s military history, so that Vimy is portrayed by everyone from Pierre Berton to Prime Minister Justin Trudeau as a glorification of Canada’s military history and a celebration of a common Canadian resolve to fight tyranny and win.
In a rambling second half, the authors argue that for Vimyism to succeed as the myth of Canada’s birth in fire, much has to be forgotten, from the horrors of war as described by Harrison, to French Canada’s alienation from the war, the segregation of black Canadian soldiers in construction units, and the poor treatment of indigenous soldiers who did not receive proper pensions. Vimyism for Swift and McKay also means forgetting the injustice of shooting of twenty-two Canadian soldiers, many of them young and psychologically wounded, for cowardice. From the sales of war toys in the gift shop of the Canadian War Museum to Vimy tours for schoolchildren, the authors cast a wide net in looking for evidence of Vimyism as a false but “uplifting and sacred story of [Canadian] origins” that betrays the true horror of war. To prosecute their case, McKay and Swift often use “what about” arguments, like supposedly noble Canadian soldiers executing prisoners or employing poison gas, or snide dismissals such as the comment that military intelligence and martial music are contradictions in terms. All of these arguments are intended to expose Vimyism as a lie, though one can ask whether it’s fair to judge the Canada of 1917 by today’s standards.
Members of Joint Task Force Nijmigen participate in a short commemorative ceremony at the Vimy War Memorial at Vimy Ridge on July 15, 2017, prior to the 101st International Four Day Marches Nijmegen, in the Netherlands, 18-21 July, 2017. Photo MCpl Charles A. Stephen, CAF
One of the monuments placed at Vimy after the battle by members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Canadian War Museum.
The Vimy Trap is nevertheless useful as an opportunity to reflect on how the CAF uses military history to perpetuate its values. Young NCMs are frequently taken on tours of Vimy Ridge and other First World War battlefields. In my experience, when our members see cemeteries full of Canadians as young or even younger than themselves, they are not moved to militaristic zeal. In fact, quite the reverse. Older members with combat experience immediately connect the war dead with their own friends and comrades lost or wounded in Afghanistan. Militarism for the CAF is not the problem. Perhaps for our leadership, the challenge is to use places like Vimy Ridge honestly, as historical moments, stripped of myth and full of pain and horror, yet still capable of teaching the military ethos of courage, self-sacrifice, tactical skill, and aggressiveness.